Our work for reconciliation and forgiveness is explained below. We believe it is so important - as part of the human dimension of conflict most often forgotten in conflict-handling and peacebuilding.
Remember that you can now also find reconciliation videos on TFF Video Channel on YouTube.
Moshtat, Göteborgs Fria, 26:e maj 2007
"I weave my memories and my hopes for Iraq"
See how Yusra Moshtat weaves the symbols of peace and beauty into her huge carpets about Iraq.
of Human Dignity and Humiliation Studies
A new unique journal with a uniquely important theme - published
by the UN University for Peace, Costa Rica
7:e januari 2007
Om Saddam, sannings- och försoningsarbete
August 11, 2006
Enemies - Humiliation and International Conflict
Pathbreaking book on one of the most fundamental - but sadly
overlooked - aspects of all conflicts. See all you need here
to order it.
Ralph Summy and Bertram Wyatt-Brown, June 26, 2006
and History in Global Perspective - Special issue of "Social
Alternatives," Vol. 25, No. 1, First Quarter, 2006
Progress can be made in preventing, managing or resolving so-called
intractable conflicts if the roots of the problem are unearthed.
While the global history of humiliation that unfolds in the
following pages makes for depressing reading in one sense, in
another it provides the framework for understanding how to transform
such events into peaceful outcomes.
June 22, 2006
becoming a global citizen can have a healing effect
The question of "home" is profoundly relevant for the inhabitants
of planet Earth. It is relevant for the identity of each citizen
and for the solution of conflicts around the world. Do we wish
to build a world of domination/submission, where a few have
luxurious homes and the rest has virtually nothing? Do we envisage
a world of separate nations (with "enemy nations" endangering
our homes)? How should local and global aspects of identity
be combined? What should we reply, when we are asked, "Where
are you from?" A personal reflection on how life can be shaped
to fit a larger reality.
June 22, 2006
New International Masters
in Mediation and Conflict Resolution
TFF Associate heads a new international master developed in
cooperation between the University of Utrecht and the University
of Copenhagen. By linking the individual level to the social
and international levels, the course aims to give students a
comprehensive understanding of conflict and conflict resolution.
Book by Evelin
Linder - May 16, 2006
Enemies. Humiliation and International Conflict
Along with the more predictable effects of intentional humiliations
such as those at Abu Graib, Dr. Linder examines and explains,
across history and nations, how this little-understood emotion
sparks outrage, uprisings, conflict and war.
"Lindner's research is pathbreaking with a global reach; it
addresses one of the most fundamental causes underlying violence
and terrorism. Learn also about the
remarkable global network she has created and about Lindner
herself," says Jan Oberg,
March 2, 2006
peace and reconciliation in Coventry
TFF board member Jørgen Johansen is a visiting scholar
at Coventry University's Centre for Peace and Reconciliation
Studies. This is a place where you can enroll and learn about
the questions of life and death.
March 1, 2006
War" of humiliation versus humiliation: What should be done?
I began my research on humiliation by asking myself: "What is
the strongest obstacle to peace and to willingness to cooperate
in our interdependent world? What is the strongest force that
fuels destructive conflict?" Feelings of humiliation, is my
What to do after these cartoons? 1. Cool down! 2. Avoid the
pitfalls of victimhood! 3. Learn moderation and 4. Avoid bias
and become aware of our commonalities by defining ourselves
as one family of humankind.
Reconciliation and Forgiveness
Ongoing Study of Processes and Policies and the Feasibility of
Developing Action Research Networks in Conflict Regions
Else Hammerich, Christian Hårleman, Evelin Lindner, Gudrun
Engström and Jan Oberg
we describe a research project which we developed during the year
2000. Since then the foundation has been looking for funds for
this project, alas without result. Research into these issues
would cost only a tiny fraction of the taxes that finance war.
want every visitor to TFF to see how we work, understand how a
major project is conceived and implemented. We want you to be
able to help us with raising the funds for this project which
we think is imperative for genuine peace-making, tolerance and
can help either by making a donation here
- or by suggesting where you think TFF should apply for funds.
Tell us at TFF@transnational.org.
Much is known about human aggression and war but close to nothing
is known about forgiving, reconciliation, tolerance and compassion.
time to study the science and art of forgiving, the methods of
reconciliation - and give them appropriate resources in comparison
with the billions of dollars squandered on the art of killing.
This is a competent, comprehensive effort at necessary research.
support this new TFF initiative at peace preparation. If you want
peace, the only logical thing is to prepare for that - not for
study has two interrelated dimensions: a) to analyse and discuss
reconciliation and forgiveness processes and policies in theory
and in practice in conflict areas; and b) to define a framework
for the establishment of a network of reconciliation and forgiveness
action-research centres in a series of possible locations around
the world. Based on visits and consultations with relevant parties,
it will outline modalities, describe possible research and training
orientation and elements of planning reconciliation and forgiveness
processes at each location.
and forgiveness processes are imperative for restoration and normalisation
after any period of violence and war. The problems and potentials
of reconciliation and forgiveness, however, are under-researched
theoretically as well as empirically.
requires an upgrading of the human dimension as it pertains to
the whole cycle of conflict; a guiding idea for this study is
that forgiveness is an individual act of freeing oneself from
the burden of hate and the desire for/right to revenge. It also
frees, potentially, the other side from the burden of guilt and
takes at least two, it aims at achieving something constructive
out of a dark, hurtful past. It does not mean forgetting but,
rather, remembering the past in order to live normally, more fully,
in the future. We forgive because we cannot forget the past. The
question is: do we know enough about these processes as they take
place in complex conflict settings? And, when we do, how
can the outsider be helpful to the parties who go through these
The study, estimated to last for three
years, will provide the Swedish government and other interested
parties and sponsors with a research-based analysis and a feasibility
study on which to develop policies in support of reconciliation
and forgiveness, including political initiatives to establish
centres for reconciliation and forgiveness as well as political,
financial and technical support in order to secure the role and
operations of such centres in the particular environments. The
term 'feasibility' implies, also, that the study will determine
where, for various reasons, it is not advisable to try to establish
such centres but where less demanding activities may support local
reconciliation and forgiveness.
The idea of establishing and operating
specific action research centres for reconciliation and forgiveness
is new and, thus, the study's basic character is explorative.
It will be conducted through interviews, dialogues, workshops
and brainstorms with many parties.
The word "centre" may imply a building
or a hierarchical organization of staff, but does not have to;
it denotes, rather, various forms of organised activities such
as more or less mobile units, a series of programmes, a dynamic
"node" or "site". Common for them is that the organisational form
corresponds with local needs and values and has a high degree
of flexibility to facilitate exploration and experimenting over
The idea implies that the centres will
have basically three functions, namely:
a) to motivate, educate and train conflicting
parties to generate and carry out practical activities which will
promote reconciliation and forgiveness (tolerance, understanding,
ethics of respect and nonviolence);
b) to generate new knowledge on reconciliation
and forgiveness in theory and practice through study and research
based on historic and cultural experiences of the involved parties
in each area; and:
c) to share knowledge and facilitate mutual
learning from one centre and one conflict area to other centres
and areas (through personal as well as electronic linking).
The centres and their projects will develop
on the basis of action research in a broad sense combined with
mutual learning not only between former adversaries but also between
supporting, sponsoring countries' expertise on the one hand and
local people, experts and processes on the other.
The following conflict areas will be integrated
in the study: 1) Eastern Europe - the Balkans; 2) the Great Lakes
- Rwanda and Burundi; 3) Sierra Leone and/or Liberia; 4) Sri Lanka;
5) the Horn of Africa - Somalia and/or Eritrea/Ethiopia; 6) Eastern
and Western Timor; 7) the Caucasus - Chechnya and/or Georgia,
8) Tibet/China and 9) Vietnam/the United States. A tenth conflict
region could be located in Central or South America, e.g. Columbia,
Guatemala or Nicaragua. Sponsors are invited to emphasize one
or more of these or suggest other conflict areas.
Two documents come with this proposal,
namely the 1999 TFF publication "The World Needs Reconciliation
and Forgiveness Centres" - available here
- which outlines
the ideas on which this proposal is based. In addition, the 1999
TFF Newsletter contains the statement on "Time
for Forgiveness" which offers the overall argument for the
need to focus more thoroughly and intensely on the reconciliation
and forgiveness processes pertaining to conflicts in various cultures
- in and of itself and as a means to prevent the future recurrence
of new bouts of violence.
These two documents are integral parts
of the grant proposal and should be studied together with the
B. Background - the Ministry,
the feasibility study and TFF
Since the mid-1990s, the Swedish Ministry
of Foreign Affairs has published two major studies on post-Cold
War conflict management. The Transnational Foundation for Peace
and Future Research, TFF, wrote a background paper for the first
study. The theme of this contribution was reconciliation and forgiveness
centres and the Ministry's report proposed the establishment of
such a centre in Macedonia, in the wake of the conflicts and resolution
processes in that region.
In 1999 TFF made "Time for Forgiveness"
a recurring theme in all its work and its vision beyond the year
2000. In autumn 1999 TFF director Jan Oberg and Foundation adviser
Christian Hårleman made a follow-up to the study at a meeting
with Sven-Olof Petersson, the Ministry's Director-General for
Political Affairs who indicated that the Ministry might be interested
in having the concept and the idea of reconciliation and forgiveness
centres developed further and a feasibility study conducted at
a series of potential locations around the world's trouble spots.
The feasibility study aims at defining the framework for reconciliation
centres in a series of possible locations around the world.
In 1999, the TFF board decided to integrate
a reconciliation and forgiveness perspective across its entire
program. This decision was based on the foundation's conflict
analysis and -mitigation work in all parts of former Yugoslavia
since 1991, in Georgia since 1993 and its planned work with these
two themes in Burundi as soon as a peace agreement is concluded
there. The background and philosophy is described in the enclosed
1999 TFF Newsletter with the theme of "Time For Forgiveness" which
was also converted to the Foundation's Millennium statement.
TFF's team members have conducted research
as well as organised reconciliation and forgiveness seminars and
training workshops in Eastern Slavonia since 1997 under the sponsorship
of the UN mission there and the Council of Europe. The activities
focussed on Croat and Serb school teachers, media people and senior
high-school students. Likewise, it has conducted a series of conflict
understanding and empowerment courses in all republics of former
Yugoslavia, sponsored by SIDA. Since 1991 the foundation has worked
with mitigation in the Kosovo conflict, between Belgrade and the
moderate Albanian leadership in the Kosovo province (1992-1996),
as well as with peace and negotiation plans and seminars for Albanian
and Serb youth (1998). In 2000, TFF team members were invited
by KFOR/UNMIK to assist in training the Kosovo Protection Corps
in dialogue, negotiation and reconciliation.
Since 1991, TFF has emphasised exploratory,
in-the-field, solution-oriented studies in conflict-mitigation.
These have been carried out in co-operation primarily with TFF
associates around the world. The experience gained has provided
unique insights and opened the path to new development in theory
formation and educational programs related to the human dimensions
of conflict as they manifest themselves from the earliest stages
of the conflict process to post-war recovery.
Associates of the foundation (e.g. Galtung,
Ikeda, Jarman, Hammerich, Lindner, Mandhyan, Satha-Anand, Schultz,
Sommelius, Vindeløv and Oberg) have, within the last few
years, either conducted field research, edited books, written
chapters and articles or given lectures and training on reconciliation
Among the foundation's global network are
Christian, Quaker, Buddhist, Muslim and Gandhian experts - theoreticians
as well as field workers - with lifelong experiences in dealing
with the human dimensions of conflict, big and small. The feasibility
study will draw extensively on this multicultural, humanistic
"capital." Where necessary, it will invite expertise from outside
TFF's network, particularly when it comes to the understanding
of specific conflicts, local cultures or other area expertise
not covered by the foundation network. Thus, it will be multi-disciplinary
and multi-cultural with an emphasis on psychology, anthropology,
psycho-analysis, social psychology, philosophy and conflict-resolution,
as well as peace and nonviolence research.
C. Placing the project in
time and space
The new pattern of conflicts and wars emerging
in the wake of the end of the Cold War creates intellectual, political
and moral challenges. Civil societies and Governments increasingly
conduct civil or intrastate wars in which civilians, civilian
resources, social, economic and cultural structures are targeted.
Contemporary wars seem to be increasingly societal with violence
directed at social existence, community and people's identity.
Invariably, ordinary citizens - indeed all of what is often called
civil society - suffer in the extreme.
Emergency assistance to war-torn societies,
followed by peace-keeping and peace-building, rehabilitation,
reconstruction and other confidence-building measures are now
seen as pillars in the re-establishment of normality. Development
has served as a palliative element in the re-building efforts.
Although the international community is, in principle, able to
help improve the living conditions as well as to bring some peace
and material development to affected areas, experiences from the
last few years also make it abundantly clear that other types
of measures and interventions than the traditional political (sometimes
military) and socio-economic ones must be employed if desirable
values such as peace, justice, basic human needs satisfaction,
tolerance and democracy are to become reality and become locally
The experiences from the last decades of
inter and intrastate conflicts have indeed revealed that the human
wounds from a conflict, in which large parts of the population
have suffered, can only be completely cured if preceded by a healing
process that is generally referred to as reconciliation.
Such reconciliation may take different
forms. While national reconciliation may refer to the re-institutionalisation
of legal, economic and political conditions, human reconciliation
may involve participatory dialogues between former adversaries
top-down as well as from the ground up. Even if the importance
of the reconciliation process is recognised and made a cornerstone
in strategies to achieve sustainable peace and development, it
remains an open question how the international community can best
help bring about reconciliation. Because, at the end of the day,
reconciliation, forgiveness and tolerance are deeply human or
existential problems and potentialities; they can be stimulated
and encouraged - made safer - from the outside, but can only grow
from inside the war-torn society and from the inside of human
Although conflicts may be rooted in states
and other organizations, they are fundamentally acted out through
and by human beings, be it presidents, arty leaders, journalists
or warlords; the victims are often children and youth, women and
wounded soliders. The variety of ways in which conflicting actors
live through conflict, violence, peace-building and reconciliation
towards normalisation is under-researched as compared to those
aspects of contemporary conflicts that fall within political science,
international relations, strategic studies and defence and security
Governmental organizations are - with a
few exceptions - not geared to handling these deeply human aspects
of complex conflicts. Consequently, there is no (consensus on)
normative systems, and it is not clear what reconciliation actually
entails and how its progress should be measured. One consideration
to be explored is this: given that reconciliation and forgiveness
processes are very complex and likely to take a very long time,
what can we do - and what should we not do - to facilitate a more
speedy development towards deep reconciliation. How can it be
integrated, if at all, with other peacebuilding and normalisation
The general, theoretical part of the study
will focus on reconciliation processes as they have taken place
for example in Europe after the Second World War, Okinawa, Vietnam
and the United States, South Africa, and through various Truth
and Reconciliation Commissions, etc. But it will also draw extensively
on material from fiction literature, art or music, from the research
on healing processes after grief and mourning, crisis psychology,
religious processes, in short macro- as well as micro-level processes.
It will study cases throughout the world where individuals have
decided individually to forgive perpetrators or, collectively,
chosen to reconciliate. (See various definitions and related terms
discussed in the enclosed publication and statement.)
The study will focus also on inter-cultural
dimensions of the problem and potentials. The modalities, processes
and perceptions of reconciliation and forgiveness vary considerably
from culture to culture, not only from individual to individual.
While the project team will study what can be learnt about these
phenomena in the Western world, it will pay particular attention
to non-Western approaches - to ensure that centres and researchers
will give priority to mutual learning and not will avoid one-way
instruction. This is not only a normative consideration but also
embedded in the very nature of the concept of forgiveness in general:
it cannot be forced upon anyone, but must develop from the inside,
from each personality and from each culture; it can not be imported,
enforced or imitated from somewhere else.
Little is known about what has, throughout
history and with different intensity in different cultures, encouraged
and inspired people to go through genuine reconciliation and forgiveness
processes. Allegedly, the very first university conference on
these processes was held in 1995 and there exist fewer than ten
study centres worldwide today, all very small, devoted exclusively
to reconciliation research.
The ideas underlying the reconciliation
itself, and/or reconciliation centres, are not only based on scholarship.
They necessitate substantial learning from historical and contemporary
cases. Research must focus not only (though mainly) on reconciliation
but also on the causes of conflict and violence. Listening to
the stories of conflicting parties at various levels and all sides
and perspectives, impartially paying respect to all involved parties
and their sufferings, is a sine qua non of serious study and comprehensive
To give just one example of the complexities
and new fields opening up: very little is known and written about
the likely individual and collective consequences over time of
humiliation, of the feeling of being humiliated - but humiliation
seems to be an integral part of all serious conflicts.
Thus, the study will be exploratory on
several levels. There are reasons to believe that it can systematise
and make a significant contribution to the accumulation of important
new knowledge. Overall, if reconciliation was more the focus of
research as well as public discussion, debate and international
attention, it would be possible to grasp and systematically implement
the essentials of reconciliation and forgiveness in many more
core processes of healing after conflict and violence.
articles - thought-provoking, informative, or "different"-
written by people who are not TFF Associates. We recommend and
share them with our readers.
of the study
D 1. The main activities of the study
The core study team, consisting of four
persons, will draw upon existing literature and consult with relevant
research centres. It will make use of TFF's global network of
associated experts. The main thrust will be attentive listening
to people in post-war areas with genuine and creative thoughts
on how to make best use of their experience with reconciliation.
It is of particular importance to tap into the inner wisdom of
societies - history, rituals, religious norms and other healing
processes known (but perhaps sometimes under-utilised) in each
society and by each international agency.
The study is estimated to take three years
with these five phases.
Phase I - Project set-up and consultation
Establishment of project organization and
staff; consultation with sponsors and final selection of conflict
areas to be included in the study; schedule with assessment of
which areas to visit when, in which time frame.
Phase II - Preparations and pre-studies
Literature studies and research over the
Internet on each of the selected conflict areas. Mapping the intellectual-academic
field of reconciliation as well as that pertaining to indigenous
religion, healing and other emotive processes. Consultation with
TFF associates, local and international area and other experts
in order to supplement literature studies before the field trips.
Practical preparation of field trips, including conversations
with representatives of the countries to be visited.
Phase III - Field trips
Interviews will be carried out with representatives
of governments, civil society organizations (or "NGOs"), religious
groups, cultural leaders, intellectuals, and others relevant for
the broad field of reconciliation, including people representing
traditional healing and reconciliation practices. A draft proposal
for centres and networks adapted to the local conditions will
be developed, including feed-back from those interviewed.
Brainstorms and workshops with relevant
parties on the spot will be arranged with the aim to produce ideas
and practical proposals, and establish priorities for local communities
- audiences which would also be natural partners to ask for feed-
back on preliminary versions of the sub-reports for the areas.
Liaison will be established with members
of the United Nations, OSCE or regional organisations being present
in the area, and their ideas and wisdom will be tapped in order
to draw upon their collective experience and pool of ideas about
the modalities and content of the work of such centres.
While the core team will make relatively
short visits to the field areas, local assistants and experts
may form their own consultative group and suggest further ideas
to be included in the final report. This type of local formation
of sub-groups in each conflict area may have a positive effect
on future reconciliation as well as provide an important sense
of ownership by the local people who will play a crucial role
in the establishment and management of the reconciliation and
Phase IV - Analysis and production of
Collected information will be analysed.
Based on the results and findings, sub-reports will be drafted
for each area and submitted to those who have previously been
interviewed as key actors. Feed-back from them will then be integrated
into the final area reports.
Phase V - Final reports
A full and comprehensive report will be
produced with theory and concepts, general background, summaries
of site analyses with local background, comparisons between the
conflict areas as well as concluding chapters and recommendations.
It would be distributed as a TFF report and/or (in larger version)
as a small book with an international publisher and maketed on
TFF's and other websites, through e-mail and through media attention.
D 2. The proposed conflict areas
It is proposed that the field trips encompass
10 areas where war or similar conditions prevail or have recently,
e.g. within the last few years, been terminated. The main focus
is on current conflicts where reconciliation is assumed as a requirement
for the forthcoming (or ongoing) peace processes.
In selecting the cases, 3 criteria will
(1) type of conflict in relation to reconciliation,
thus e.g.: a) difficult/complex conflicts where some reconciliation
has taken place; b) difficult conflicts where no reconciliation
has happened; c) more easy/smaller/less complex conflicts where
some reconciliation has taken place and d) same type with no evidence
of successful reconciliation.
(2) More or less involvement by third parties
(government and non-government); more or less international media
(3) The conflicts should offer good opportunities
for studying a variety of cultural and normative dimensions in
theory and practise, religious as well as non-religious.
In order to get as broad intellectual and
substantial input as possible, the cases should represent a diversity
in terms of roots and causes of the conflict, cultures and ethnic
It is proposed to integrate the following
conflict areas into the study: 1) Eastern Europe -the Balkans;
2) the Great Lakes - Rwanda and Burundi; 3) Sierra Leone and/or
Liberia; 4) Sri Lanka; 5) the Horn of Africa - Somalia and/or
Eritrea/Ethiopia; 6) Eastern and Western Timor; 7) the Caucasus
- Chechnya and Georgia, 8) Tibet/China and 9) Vietnam/the United
States. A tenth conflict region should be located in Central or
South America, e.g. Columbia. Sponsors are invited to emphasize
one or more of these or suggest other conflict areas.
D 3. The organisation of the project
and its staff
1. A core project team will be leading
and coordinatingand take responsibility for the project. It will
consist of four experienced TFF associates, namely Christian Hårleman
(consultant with military background, Stockholm), Else Hammerich
(Center for Conflict-Resolution, Copenhagen) and Evelin Lindner
(dr. Oslo University with TFF director Jan Oberg as head of team.
(See enclosed CVs).
2. It is suggested that Mr. Ulf Svensson
of the Ministry ofForeign Affairs who has been a member of the
TFF Board since 1986 promotes the liaison between TFF and the
ministry. Liaisons will also be appointed for/by other sponsors,
should they so wish.
3. TFF associates around the world (see
enclosed leaflet with their names and the foundation's website
for details) are brought in where relevant as experts, co-analysts
and consultants. TFF Peace Antennas, the group of young scholars
and NGO workers will be employed where relevant.
4. Other consultants and experts will be
brought in as appropriate from various parts of the world, in
particular from the regions included in the study.
5. Secretarial functions at TFF headquarters
as well assistants on field trips and local assistant(s) and interpreter(s).
E. Some Expected Results
The overall objectives of the study are
to explore the feasibility of introducing reconciliation and forgiveness
processes and centres as main or complementary elements in the
overall process toward peace-building and normalisation after
war. The specific shape this could take would be to establish
the type of reconciliation centres - or a network of them - described
in the enclosed report. Such centres are not conceptualised as
"institutions", but conceived of as more or less mobile centres,
flexible sites for research, training and mutual competence-building
involving former adversaries with support from the outside.
One question to be analysed and answered
is: can indicators be developed on when and where post-war societies
are "ripe" for the setting up of such activities? Can forgiveness
and reconciliation be promoted and achieved sooner than has often
been the case and, if so, what factors are important?
The study will provide the Swedish Government
and other sponsors with a research-based analysis that offers
the main decision-making dimensions, dilemmas, policy options,
criteria and norms useful for developing a policy and strategy
in relation to reconciliation, forgiveness and related objectives.
It will distinguish between four main strategies:
(i) the establishment of one or more centres
in the future and
(ii) the support of the build-up of a global
network of initiatives and activities supportive of forgiveness
and reconciliation, based on certain defined norms and criteria
to be determined through the study;
(iii) a combination of the two
(iv) the indication of where centres may
not be feasible at the moment but where other activities would
seem more helpful for the promotion of reconciliation.
The study will offer possible answers to
questions such as the following:
What can be learnt from successful
and failed reconciliation and forgiveness in recent wars? What
can be said about the relationship between the use of force and
violence (different types of it) and the likelihood/type/time
needed for reconciliation?
What is reconciliation and forgiveness? Is
it possible to measure its progress and, thus, promote it? What
are the signs of an ongoing reconciliation process and how can
the end state of that process in general and in particular settings
be identified and defined?
To which extent does the type of
conflict influence the type of reconciliation? Which are
the cultural parameters, and what can be done to promote reconciliation
from outside and what must be done from within society?
What factors and what categories
of actors encourage reconciliation? (Focus on gender, age, social
strata and status, religion, social cosmology, healing traditions,
earlier trauma experiences etc.).
Which are the binding forces or
obstacles and which are the links between former adversaries that
Is it possible to establish a normative
system in the promotion of reconciliation in post-war societies
- if so, how should it be established and in which forms? - theoretical
modules or more substantial centres)? Is it possible to teach/learn
reconciliation and forgiveness, or is it "too private"?
Which conflict areas are "ripe"
for the establishment of some type of reconciliation and forgiveness
centre - based upon the rapporteurs' assessment of a number of
indicators and the interviews conducted.
Under what circumstances does the
West and non-West have comparative advantages in promoting reconciliation
vis-a-vis third parties? Can mandates be defined and, if so, how?
How are international actors, governmental
as well as civil society organisations (CSOs) most likely to make
a constructive, respectful impact, what to do when and what not
to do, and why? Are present international organisations geared
to reconciliation and forgiveness support? If not, can they
be adapted/reformed or should the setting up of new organizations
be seriously considered?
What are the likely roles of truth
and reconciliation commissions on the one hand and various legal
processes on the other hand for the overall reconciliation and
forgiveness process, under various circumstances? Whose needs
for recognition can be satisfied through commissions, through
legal process and through other measures and with what consequences
? Can the two instruments be combined in time and space and, if
so, what types of support may most effectively speed up the overall
healing of societies?
Where the establishment of a reconciliation
centre is recommended, what special features, what profile and
"program" would be necessary to be effective in the particular
Which factors - and which timing
problems - must be dealt with in order to implement the centre
and/or network idea in practise.
Who could be the social carriers
of the idea?
The final report will be a document that
includes an overview, an identification of the problems, the state
of the art and a series of recommendations. Background papers
will also be included. The report will include reports from each
visited location with an analysis based on interviews and other
fact-finding. The sub-reports will contain proposals as to resources,
interests, profiles, possible and focused activities, training
capacity as well as available organisational and/or administrative
resources in the area. The report will not deal with how to raise
funds for such centres.
It is foreseen that the project will generate
significant new insights both in terms of theory and field experiences
to result in a book for a wider readership in addition to the
project report with the feasibility study. At the appropriate
moment, a follow-up grant proposal for such a book will be presented
to the sponsors.